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Monday, 8th of October 1492

W.S.W., cover 12 leagues. Water like the river at Seville. “Thanks be to God,” says the Admiral (Columbus always refers to himself as the Admiral. His proudest title to his death was that he earned on this voyage from the Catholic Monarchs, Almirante del Mar Mar “Admiral of the Ocean Sea”,) "the air is very soft like the April in Seville.” Many land birds.
 
Wednesday 10th of October, 1492.

W.S.W. made 59 leagues. Sailors complained and wanted to turn around. The Admiral cheered them and they assented.

Other sources say Columbus promised to turn around in two days if land wasn’t sighted. Most modern authorities dismiss that story.

There is no basis for the report that he pacified them by offering a female stowaway to do with "what you will."
 
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Loxuru

Graf von Kreuzigung
Sailors complained and wanted to turn around. The Admiral cheered them and they assented.

Other sources say Columbus promised to turn around in two days if land wasn’t sighted.
To return meant going on into the same direction anyway. The maritime innovation that brought Columbus to his succes, was a maximal exploitation of the clockwise wind pattern in the Northern Hemisphere. Before being able to return, they had to continue, to find the eastward leg of that pattern. They could not just turn around.
 
Thursday 11th of October, 1492

Course W.S.W. and there was more sea than there had been for the whole of the voyage. They saw sandpipers and a green rod near the ship. The Pinta saw a cane and a pole which appeared to have been worked. The Nina saw a small branch with berries. Everyone breathed afresh and rejoiced at these signs. 28 leagues during daylight.

After sunset returned to W. Up to two hours after midnight covered an additional 22 ½ leagues.

As the Pinta was the better sailer, she went ahead and she found land, and made the signals ordered by the Admiral. They shortened sail and lay by under the main-sail without the bonnets. [A skilled sailor, Columbus refused to hurry on to the land. Approaching an unfamiliar, lee shore in the dark is foolish.]
 
This Day, 527 years ago in Columbus’s Diary

Friday, 12th of October , 1492

The vessels were hove to, waiting for daylight; and so in Friday they arrived at a small island of the Lucayos, called, in the language of the Indians, Guanahani. Presently they saw naked people. The Admiral went on shore in the armed boat, and Martin Alonso Pinzon, and Vicente Yañez, his brother, who was captain of the Niña. The Admiral took the royal standard, and the captains went with two banners of the green cross, which the Admiral took in all the ships as a sign, with and F and a Y and a crown over each letter, one on one side of the cross and the other on the other.

Whatever the political overtones, it cannot be denied that this event, along with Gutenberg’s first use of movable type, fifty three years earlier, in 1439, represent the two most monumental events in the last 1,000 years of history. Indeed, arguably the most important changes to the world since the birth of Christ. And, on a human scale, the “Admiral’s” voyages were masterpieces of seamanship.

In the words of the great historian and Columbus biographer, Samuel Eliot Morison:

America was discovered accidentally by a great seaman who was looking for something else; when discovered it was not wanted; and most of the exploration for the next fifty years was done in the hope of getting through or around it. America was named after a man who discovered no part of the New World. History is like that, very chancy.
 

RacingRodent

Potent Rodent
America was discovered accidentally by a great seaman who was looking for something else; when discovered it was not wanted; and most of the exploration for the next fifty years was done in the hope of getting through or around it. America was named after a man who discovered no part of the New World. History is like that, very chancy.
I think this last bit is very important, impressive seamanship or not it was a terrible piece of navigation and Columbus was very lucky the Americas happened to be in the way of where he thought he was going.
 

Loxuru

Graf von Kreuzigung
The irony is that Columbus underestimated the circumference of the Earth in his calculations. This was against the opinion of other geographers of his time, who had made a more correct estimation. Because of this error, Columbus considered it feasible to sail to India by a western route (with the available ship technology of his time)..
 

Migoz2

Governor
Today, October 12, Kenyan runner Eliud Kipchoge became the first man to overcome the two-hour barrier for the marathon. At the competitions in Vienna (Ineos 1:59 Challenge) he showed the result 1:59:40, but this is not considered an official world record.
Given what it took to achieve this (41 pacemakers and lasers!), I can see why it's not an official word record!
 
On this day in 1779, Casimir Pulaski is thought to have died after being wounded in the Second Battle of Savannah (although the exact date of his death is a bit uncertain). Pulaski was a Polish-born Revolutionary War hero who commanded troops under George Washington.
 
yes yes polish war hero neko have some silver coins and stamps with Kazimierz Pułaski :oops: :cat:
Casimir Pulaski Day is celebrated in several American cities. Growing up in Philadelphia, I remember the Pulaski Day parades. Later in Buffalo, with a large Polish population, it was a big deal. Many poles emigrated from Poland when under the rule of Germany and Austria and Russia and came to work in the steel mills in Buffalo-Lackawanna.

The best place for buying Polish food is the Broadway Market:
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Chrusciki Bakery's Placek bread, fluffy and sweet
Babcia’s Pierogi's Farmer’s cheese pierogi
Camellia Foods' Fresh and smoked Polish sausage
and wonderful hot (very hot!) horseradish.
 

Rias

Neko Girl
this is polish reciepe pierogi are available with: meat, with cabbage and mushrooms, with cottage cheese, with cheese and potatoes(this called russian pierogi but only call reciepe still polish!), with blueberries, with strawberries and with other types of stuffing also here on xmas with mushroom stuffing on all tables and all kittys eat they :oops: :oops: :oops: :oops: :cat:
 

Barbaria1

Rebel Leader
Staff member
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